AUA Summit - Urologic Conditions

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    Bladder augmentation is an operation performed to increase the size of the bladder. This type of surgery is for patients whose bladder is not large enough to hold the usual amount of urine made by the kidneys. In some patients, the urine may leak from the bladder, causing wetting (incontinence).

    Computed axial tomography (also known as "CT scan" or "CAT scan") combines x-rays and computer processing to make very detailed images. It can clearly show tissues and organs. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film.

    Testicular Torsion is when a loose testicle twists around the spermatic chord. When this happens, it cuts off the blood flow to the testicle. It should be treated as a medical emergency. This is thankfully a rare problem, especially in newborns.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and magnets to make detailed pictures of the body’s organs and soft tissues. These images can be seen in 3-D (3 dimensions).

    Retrograde pyelography is a form of x-ray used to get detailed pictures of the ureters and kidneys. Retrograde pyelography uses a special dye (“contrast agent”) injected into the ureters. The dye makes the ureters and kidneys more easily seen on the x-ray. This test is like an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). But with IVP, the dye is injected into a vein instead of the ureter.

    Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) is an x-ray exam that uses a special dye to outline the kidneys, ureters and bladder. It can show how your renal and urinary system handles fluid waste. This helps your health care team find problems in the urinary tract. IVP is used to diagnose why a patient has blood in their urine, or pain in their side/lower back. It can also show us how each person’s unique kidneys and urinary system is made.

    Normally, urine flows one way, down from the kidneys, through tubes called ureters, to the bladder. But what happens when urine flows from the bladder back into the ureters? This is called vesicoureteral reflux.

    The ureter is a muscular tube that transfers urine from the kidney to the bladder. It is about 10 inches long, with the upper half in the belly and the lower half in the pelvic area.

    While benign (non-cancerous) tumors in the adrenal gland are very common, cancers in or around this gland are very rare. They are found in only 1 or 3 per 1 million people. These tumors can give off too much cortisol or other hormones.

    Most kidneys work well cleaning the blood from waste and keeping the body’s fluids and electrolytes in balance. A problem can occur during early kidney development in utero that results in an abnormal kidney (kidney dysplasia). Cysts, or fluid filled sacs, replace normal kidney tissue. As a result, kidney function can deteriorate before or after birth. Children with end stage kidney function will require blood-filtering treatment (kidney dialysis) until a kidney is available to be transplanted.