AUA Summit - Urologic Conditions

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    Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection where one or both kidneys become infected. They can be infected by bacteria or a virus. It can cause people to feel very sick and it requires treatment.

    Your kidneys are generally well protected by muscles of the back and rib cage but injuries can occur as a result of blunt or penetrating trauma. The kidney is the most common organ in the urinary tract to be injured by severe trauma. "Trauma" is injury caused by an external force that may be either blunt—such as a car accident—or penetrating—such as a gunshot wound.

    An abscess is a localized collection of pus in a hollow area formed by the breaking up of tissues. A renal abscess is one that is confined to the kidney and is caused either by bacteria from an infection traveling to the kidneys through the bloodstream or by a urinary tract infection traveling to the kidney and then spreading to the kidney tissue.

    Sperm retrieval refers to any procedure that is used to obtain sperm for fertility purposes. In general, sperm retrieval is performed when there is either no sperm present in the semen or if men are unable to ejaculate. In almost all cases, sperm retrieval must be utilized in combination with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for reasonable pregnancy rates to be obtained.

    Having two of everything may be normal when you are talking about eyes, ears, hands and feet, but in the female reproductive system, a doubling of certain organs — such as the uterus, cervix, and vagina — is not a welcome turn of events. Much of the female reproductive system is derived from two structures, known as mullerian ducts — a pair of embryonic ducts that evolve into the fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina in females. They come together during the ninth week of pregnancy. If this process is prevented or interrupted, "fusion" or "duplication" anomalies occur.

    Urinalysis is a test used to examine the content of a urine sample. A urinalysis is used: to diagnose things like a urinary tract infection, kidney disease, kidney stones, diabetes or pregnancy; before an operation to screen for problems; and to monitor your health if you’ve been diagnosed with a medical condition like kidney disease or urinary tract disease.

    Urine cytology is a test to screen a patient’s urine for cancer cells. This is one of many tools used to diagnose cancers in the urinary tract, including bladder, kidney, prostate, ureter and urethra cancers.

    A urine culture is used to identify a urinary tract infection with a sample of "clean-catch" (midstream) urine.

    Urodynamic studies (UDS) test how well the bladder, sphincters, and urethra hold and release urine. These tests can show how well the bladder works and why there could be leaks or blockages.

    Science has given urologists a bevy of tools to probe the most private parts of the body in diagnosing urinary and renal disease. Every modern imaging technology, from conventional X-rays to radionuclide imaging, has found its way into urologic radiology's arsenal. The good news for physicians is that they have many options to explore the kidneys, ureters, bladder and surrounding structures. The better news for patients is that today's tests are thorough, relatively pain-free and often quick.